Under Indian Trademark Act, 1999 there are 45 different classes under which the applicant can file an application for trademark registration. Different business activity falls under a different class. There is also a bifurcation between goods and service activities, different goods/ service related business falls under a different class. There are a total of 45 different classes in the trademark category. The trademark class is divided into two different categories one is Goods activity class which falls under 1 – 34 classes and the second one is the Service activity class which is covered for 35 – 45 classes. Every class having a different description of the business activity. The applicant can file a trademark application either in any one class or more than one class as per requirement of his business. Let’s take a brief look at different classes of a trademark:




Class 1

Chemicals; Unprocessed plastics; Compost; Fertilizers; Fire Extinguishers; etc

Class 2

Paints; Varnishes; Colorants; Dyes; Ink for painting; Raw natural resins; Preservatives against rust; etc

Class 3

Non-medicated cosmetics; Perfumes; Essential oils; Bleaching preparations; other laundry use substances; etc

Class 4

Industrial Oils; Grease; Dust absorbing; Fuels; Candles and wicks for lighting; etc

Class 5

Pharmaceuticals products; Sanitary preparations; Dietary supplements; Medical products; Plasters; etc

Class 6

Metals for building and constructions; Non-electric cables and wires; Small metal hardware; Safes; etc

Class 7

Machine; Machine tools; Motor; Engine except for land vehicles; Agriculture implements; AVM; etc

Class 8

Hand tools and implements, hand operated; Cutlery; Sidearms, except firearms; Razors

Class 9

Compact disc, DVDs; Calculating machines; Photographic instruments; Computers; Computer software; etc

Class 10

Surgical, medical insturments; Artifical limbs, eye, teeth; Massage appartus; Sexsual acitivities device; etc

Class 11

Apparatus for lighting, heating, water supply, cooking, drying, sanitary purposes; etc

Class 12

Vehicles; Apparatus for locomotion by land, water, and air

Class 13

Firearms; Ammunition and projectiles; Explosives; Fireworks

Class 14

Jewellary; Precious metals; Semi-precious metal; Horological and Chronometric instruments

Class 15

All musical insturments

Class 16

Stationery equipment; Office requisites except for furniture; Drawing materials; Teaching materials; etc

Class 17

Rubber; Gum; Mica; Packing, insulating materials; Flexible pipes, tubes, and hoses not of metals; etc

Class 18

Leather and imitation of leathers; Animal skins; Umbrella; Walking sticks; Wipes; Luggage; Clothing for animals; etc

Class 19

Building materials [non-metalic]; Monuments, not of metal; Non metalic rigid pipes; Pitch, bitumen; etc

Class 20

Furniture; Containers not of metal; Unworked or semi-worked bones, horn, whalebone or mother-in-pearls; Shells; etc

Class 21

Household or kitchen utensils; Cookware or tableware except for fork, knife, spoons; Glass except building glass; Articles for cleaning purpose; Brushes except paintbrush; etc

Class 22

Ropes, nets, strings, Raw fibrous textile materials and substitutes thereof; Tents and tarpaulins; Sails; Synthetic material; etc

Class 23

Yarn and threads, for textile use

Class 24

Textiles and substitutes for textiles; Household linen; Curtains of textile or plastics

Class 25

Clothes; Footwears; Headgears

Class 26

Lace and embroidery; Buttons, hooks and eyes, Pins and needles, Artifical flowers; Ribbon and braid; False Hairs; Hair decorations

Class 27

Carpets, Rug, Mats, linoleum and other material for covering existing floors; Wall hangings [non-metalic]

Class 28

Games, toys and playthings, Video games apparatus; Gymnastic and sporting articles; Decorations for Christmas Trees

Class 29

Meat, fish, poultry, and game; Eggs, Milk and Milk products, Frozen, dried, cooked fruits and vegetables; Oil, Jellies, Jam, etc

Class 30

Coffee, tea, rice, cocoa, flour, salt, mustard, spices, vinegar, sauces, Ice, yeast, bread, pastries, confectionery, sugar, honey, etc

Class 31

Raw and unprocessed agricultural, forestry products; Seeds and grains; Fresh fruits and vegetables; Flowers and plants; Blub; etc

Class 32

Beers; Aerated water and other non-alcoholic beverages; Fruit juice; Syrups; and other preparation for making beverages; etc

Class 33

Alcoholic beverages [except beers]

Class 34

Tobacco; Smoker articles; Matches


Class 35Advertising; Business management; Business administration; Office functions
Class 36Insurance; Financial affairs; Monetary affairs; Real Estate affairs
Class 37Building constructions; Repair; Installation services
Class 38Telecommunications
Class 39Transport; Packaging and storage of goods; Travel arrangement
Class 40Treatment of materials
Class 41Education; Providing of training; Entertainment; Sporting and cultural activities
Class 42Scientific and technological services; Research Services; Design and development of computer hardware and software; etc
Class 43Services for providing food and drink; Temporary accommodation
Class 44Medical services; Veterinary Services; Hygienic and beauty care of human and animals; Agriculture, horticulture, and forestry services
Class 45Legal services; Security services for the physical protection of tangible property and individuals; Personal and social services rendered by others to meet the needs of individual

It is very important to select the correct class of trademark for filing application otherwise govt will reject the application. Take proper care and guidance from the professionals while choosing the right class for the business activity. You can register your trademark at the best price from www.registerexperts.com as there professional fees is just Rs 999/- for filing the trademark application.

The relevance of Intellectual Property Rights in Business?

‘Business’ and ‘Intellectual Property’ are two closely knit terms. In fact, business is a process. The process involves ingredients, many of which form a part of intellectual property. Let us understand it in simple words. The first step of business creation involves innovation, designing, operating brands for products and services, trade names etc. Further, during the business development phase when the product or service is ready to be delivered, patents, trademarks, copyrights etc. become important which also form a part of IPR.

Now that you have understood the close relationship between the two, it is important to realize that utilisation of IP assets in business strategy is vital for the success of a business. It is a competitive environment and one needs to protect the manufacturing secrets, designs etc. to retain the customer’s loyalty and survive the entrepreneurial market. The knowledge of IP assets is necessary for the evolution of a product or service pertaining to the customer’s needs.

Types of Intellectual Property Rights

  1. Patents – They are meant for inventions. The inventor is given exclusive right on its product. Nobody else is allowed to produce the same product or use the same process for production, without the permission of the inventor. Such right is given for a limited period and granted only if the invention is capable of industrial application and involves an inventive step.

  2. Trademarks–It is the unique identification of a specific enterprise or person producing or providing a product or service.

  3. Industrial Designs–These can be protected if nothing like them have been previously made available to the public. Designs having ‘individual character’ can be registered to protect them being copied by other businesses.

  4. Trade secrets or confidential information – It is the most valuable asset of a business. For instance, a information on new product design, marketing strategy or a software code can be indigenous to an enterprise.

  5. Copyright–It is relevant to literary, musical, artistic, dramatic works etc. and involves original databases, films, programmes, broadcasts, sound recordings and typographical arrangements of published editions. Copyright is prevented from being copied or certain other acts.

  6. Database rights–Usually, it is needed when the contents of a database are prepared, obtained or verified at high investments. Under database rights, nobody can extract or re-utilise all or a part of the contents of the database unless authorised by the owner of the database.

An understanding of intellectual property rights helps businesses to protect their confidential assets and incorporate the planning accordingly. Businesses promote innovations making huge investments and patent portfolio is quintessential to ensure the competitiveness of innovation. IPR varies from country to country, hence a prior knowledge of IP norms is important to avoid any dispute and infringement of the company’s image among customers and corporate channels.

To sum up, an enterprise should timely evaluate its existing intellectual property to be in line with business’ objectives. It can open new avenues to expand their product range and create new benchmarks.